Most countries consider infrastructure development as a key enabler of development, as it spurs job creation, trade and investment. For many developing countries, multilateral development banks (MDBs) are important in addressing their infrastructure financing deficits. MDBs have historically dictated the terms of financing by prescribing rules on financial management and environmental and social safeguards, despite the presence of similar systems in the relevant countries. Increasingly, however, both MDBs and their borrowers are seeking to eliminate such extra requirements in favour of the full utilisation of countries’ own domestic systems and processes, broadly referred to as the ‘use of country systems’ (UCS). The defining benefit of greater UCS to MDBs is that it respects the sovereignty of countries by not imposing external conditionalities. UCS also promotes national ownership of development projects by increasing the involvement of domestic actors, institutions and processes, and hence increasing projects’ sustainability. At the same time, UCS can strengthen domestic systems through greater utilisation, thereby exposing deficiencies that can be corrected and eliminating the duplication of costs and efforts engendered by parallel systems. Ultimately, UCS gives developing countries a greater stake in their own development trajectory, as well as the tools to manage the process better. Yet the greater uptake of an UCS approach by MDBs and borrowers has been hampered by a number of key challenges.
File Size: 3.27 MB No of Downloads: 666.
Tue, Aug 1, 2017
Enhancing Mobilization of Own Source Revenue In Nairobi City County: Issues & Opportunities
This paper seeks to understand the challenges and opportunities of enhancing local revenue mobilization in Nairobi City County. It notes that local revenue is an important revenue source for the County given its expanding budgetary and service delivery needs. Furthermore, Nairobi County has little influence on the revenue it receives as transfers from the national government and that in cases of delays, local revenue is always a good fall back. Besides, local revenue is critical in fostering accountability and fiscal discipline in the county.
In 2011, an African Development Bank report categorised one-third of Africa’s population – about 313 million people – as “middle class”.1 The term was controversially applied to those earning between US$2 and US$20 a day. The growth of a middle class in Africa has been widely celebrated in reports by international consultancies and investment banks eager to stimulate investment – and fees. A burgeoning middle class should boost tax revenues and consumer demand. It is generally considered to be good for political accountability and democracy, and a catalyst for social development, job creation, innovation and poverty reduction.
This narrative is problematic for many reasons. Middle classes are heterogeneous: their characteristics vary country by country. Most reports celebrating Africa’s rapidly growing middle class assign membership on the basis of income. But middle class and middle income are not synonymous and should not be conflated. “Class” is a socio-economic concept typically defined by many more indicators than income alone. Indeed, in contemporary Africa it is questionable whether Marxist-Weberian definitions of “class” fashioned in the West have any relevance at all.
File Size: 3.70 MB No of Downloads: 741.
Wed, Jun 28, 2017
Policy Debate On 5 Socio- Economic Issues In Kenya: Election 2017
This document is a compilation of five socio-economic issues affecting Kenya including; Education, Employment, Housing, Health, Water and Sanitation. The document delved into the effects these issues have on women, youth and persons with disability with the aim of empowering them to effectively participate and inform policy and issue oriented discourse during and beyond the forthcoming elections.
File Size: 1.45 MB No of Downloads: 1378.
Tue, Mar 28, 2017
Comparative Study of Kenya US, EU And China Trade and Investment Relations
The historical relations between Kenya and China dates back centuries to the era of barter trade, in which there were exchanges of goods and services along the Kenyan coastline as archeological findings have shown. Kenya gained its sovereign status in 1963 and has enjoyed good relations politically, economically and socially, with its close border neighbors; Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi that together they form the East African Community (EAC), and the rest of the countries on the African continent, as well as other countries in the rest of the world. Trade forms a basic pillar of the relations between different states worldwide. Kenya has maintained trade relations with the United States of America (USA), as well as with China, which is steadily on the rise in terms of trade on the world stage, and the European Union (EU), which has been, for a long time Kenya’s trading partner. Once a colony of the British Empire, this did not close the link between both countries as trade has been maintained from then to date.
File Size: 2.12 MB No of Downloads: 11532.
Thu, Jan 14, 2016
Child Budget Analysis in Kenya: National Government and Six County Government
Kenya is a signatory to various international conventions, including the all-important United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and the Charter on the Right. Indeed, the country has gone further to domesticate this convention through the Children Act, 2001 as demonstration of its commitment towards safeguarding the rights of children who comprise 52% of the population.
File Size: 2.53 MB No of Downloads: 3168.
Thu, Jan 14, 2016
Kenya is a signatory to various international conventions, including the all-important United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and the Charter on the Right. Indeed, the country has gone further to domesticate this convention through the Children Act, 2001 as demonstration of its commitment towards safeguarding the rights of children who comprise 52% of the population. These rights are in the areas of child survival, growth and development (health and education), protection and participation. Government reports show that the country is struggling in certain areas with regard to the realization of child rights, including low participation rates in ECDE, especially in arid and semi-arid areas (ASALs), high infant and under-five mortality rates, short of MDG targets, malnutrition, low immunization coverage, poor sanitation, and vulnerability to harm and exploitation.
This report seeks to establish the progress Kenya has made towards these commitments by analysing child budget, especially now that the country is in transition to a devolved system of governance. Since the budget is the most important economic and policy instrument used by government to translate their policies and commitments in service delivery, it serves as a good basis to draw policy and budget advocacy strategy in building a case for investment in children, not only from a rights angle, but also from an economic logic, as well as social and political perspective.
File Size: 2.53 MB No of Downloads: 3141.
Thu, Jun 18, 2015
Institutionalising Social Accountability in Devolved Governance
Kenya’s adoption of the devolved system of governance places citizens at the core of governance and with elevated hopes for improvement in the delivery of public services. Being cognizant that among the objects of Kenya’s devolution are: to give powers of self-governance to citizens and enhance their participation in the exercise of the powers of State and in making decisions affecting them; to recognise the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development; and to promote social and economic development and the provision of proximate, easily accessible services throughout Kenya. A fundamental principle of democracy is that citizens have the right to exact accountability and public officials have a duty to be accountable.
While the constitution makes a resounding call for these hopes, we are conscious that devolution may not immediately lead to more accountable government at the County level. This handbook aims at providing easy to read information to leaders and citizens on social accountability. We define social accountability as the engagement of civil society or other non state actors to exact accountability from government and public service providers with the aim of improving quality and transparency in public processes. Social accountability is important in enhancing democratic governance and improving service delivery at both levels of government: the National and the County. It is therefore important to strengthen the voice of citizens to hold their leaders accountable
File Size: 512.67 KB No of Downloads: 2840.
Thu, Jun 18, 2015
The Democratic Alternatives from the South: India, Brazil and South Africa
Meaningful citizen participation in governance is a key ingredient for public reforms that were instituted by the Constitution of Kenya (CoK) 2010. Article 1 (1) of the Constitution vests all sovereign power to the people of Kenya. This power can be expressed through direct participation or indirectly through elected representatives. In addition, various pieces of legislations anchoring devolution highlight the principles of citizen participation. Together, these constitutional and legislative provisions avail various platforms for citizen participation in devolved governance. Citizen participation is one of the national values and is also one of the principles of public service as articulated in the Constitution in Articles 10 (2,a) and Article 232 (1).
This study on Public Participation in County Governance and County Information Dissemination Frameworks, case study of Isiolo, Kisumu, Makueni and Turkana counties was undertaken in the project Fostering Social Accountability in Devolved Governance implemented by the Institute of Economic Affairs Kenya. The project was part of a wider project implemented by Uraia Trust titled Rooting Democracy in Kenya through an Informed Citizenry. The study was undertaken between November 2014 and May 2015.